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  1. In a vast yet diversified country like India where dialect and languages vary for every couple of hundred kilometres, English and Hindi remain among the most widely spoken, understood and recognized languages. Along these two languages, English generally connects a lot of people who hail from areas where spoken local languages are completely different from each other i.e. Tamil and Marathi. In such cases, English acts the bridge between the individuals and enables them incommunicating with each other easily. For all other practical purposes also, English is widely hailed and used as a common language across the globe. Therefore learning English language becomes pertinent for any individual who aspires to build his/her career in today’s globalized economy. English language acts as a stepping stone towards success for students of all streams as well as working professionals across all the industry verticals. Developing command over any language including English comprises of developing deep understanding of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciations. Generally English is considered as a funny language because its pronunciations and vocabulary vary alot. Often similarly spelt words have different pronunciations and alphabets remain silent in many words which make the pronunciations very peculiar and it takes consistent time and effort to remember and master them. This primarily happens because roots of large quantum of English wordsoriginate from other languages like Latin, French, Spanish etc. This trait also adds lot of diversity to the language and makes it easy for people across the globe to adapt it. ELTIS which stands for English Language Teaching Institute of Symbiosis is a Pune based institute which has been instrumental in training students from 25 plus countries in developing command over English language. ELTIS offers wide range of courses for International as well as Indian students which help them in developing command over written and spoken English. They also provide specific focus on Business English which enables the students in exceling in competitive corporate environment.ELTIS also offers specific courses for Indian students who want to learn English speaking. Institute boasts competent and qualified faculty which also helps students to learn English grammar which is often considered as one of trickiest aspects of English language.Institute also offers short term crash courses, summer courses and year long diploma courses which cater to needs of college students as well as working professionals. They also offer a course specifically designed for students who want appear in IELTS exam which provides admission gateway to 9000 plus universities worldwide. ELTIS is part of Pune based renowned Symbiosis International University and it has been at helm of helping out many individuals from diverse backgrounds in mastering the spoken and written English.
  2. I'm currently in my early 20s and have had infrequent spells of German classes since I was 13, although, the last of these was several years ago. The casual German conversations I hold with native speakers are riddled with grammatical errors but I certainly know enough to brute force my way through most situations. I'm keen on sitting the B2/C1 German language exams but don't know where to begin. There are so many interlinked concepts and rules and I'm not sure how to structure my studies for these exams. I'm definitely riding on shaky grammatical foundations. I'd really appreciate advice on how to structure my studies for these exams. More specifically, I'd appreciate a hierarchy of concepts that demonstrates the governing principles, and advice on what order to learn them in, given that I already know the basics. Thanks in advance!
  3. Hey guys, I've spent some time developing an app to try and help with studying Spanish. I found it quite hard to determine what to learn, and when, as well as practicing conjugations. This is especially difficult in Spanish, as the pronoun dropping rule means that it's absolutely paramount to know you conjugations, to determine who's talking, and which tense is being used. Feel free to give it a try and let me know if you have any input! https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/optimalearn-spanish/id1239890854?ls=1&mt=8
  4. Hey guys! I as a German learner myself, I have always searched new ways to improve my current language skill. What I want to recommend to try out is https://bliubliu.com/en/learning/challenge/german-in-30-days/?utm_source=af&utm_campaign=p.j&utm_medium=g.j Basically, it is an online course, or 30 day challenge, where an native speaker is guiding you through the process. It is fun and easy to follow! Also, other learners will keep you motivated. Let's make language learning easy!
  5. found the word 'saß' in a text I was reading, it translated to 'sat'? But when I congugate sitzen, I get the past tense as gessessen. Can someone explain? Is it in a different tense?
  6. So I'm studying a transcript of a short story told in german on the Auf geht's program, and I'm running into confusion with this specific sentence. So the sentence translates to "One used to take a bus to Neunhaus and from Neunhaus with a train to Nordhorn.", but I don't understand why the second 'noch' (meaning 'still') is in the sentence? Can anyone explain why it's there? Another one is in the phrase "und ich arbeit ja in Nordhorn." What is the 'ja' there for? Is it like a pause, like an 'um' or does it actually mean something in the sentence? One more thing, can someone explain the general usage of 'sich' in sentences? In the transcript, where I'd think she would use 'we', she seems to use 'man sich' instead.
  7. Hello there! I have a question about Mandarin Chinese grammar. Which of the following sentences are acceptable: 1) 他是在公共汽车里的前面 2) 他是在公共汽车的前面里 3) 他是在公共汽车里的前面里 Also, would you be able to say something like "他是在前面的公共汽车(里)? Thanks in advance!
  8. The application world has yet to see something as unique as Tapxicon. Although there are many dictionary and English learning apps available, none delivers like Tapxicon; both in terms of content and use. With the ease of browsing words on the go, Tapxicon changes what was once a tiresome and boring task into an effortless review by allowing phone users to comprehend the word that they see on that LCD, in a manner that hardly takes effort and most definitely doesn’t feel like a textbook being shoved in their faces. Let’s face it, improving your vocabulary whilst browsing Facebook is more enjoyable than reading a dictionary. But if you prefer that, we won't judge (or would we?). Tapxicon is the companion you never had. The companion who tells you all the tasty goodness of a word. This includes: • Definitions • Audio Pronunciation • Phonetic Notation • Synonyms • Antonyms • Usage • Derivation • Hierarchical Information such as- type, part, substance. Other features include: • Verb Conjugation- four subcategories of conjugation: indicative, subjunctive, conditional and imperative. • Part of Speech Tagger- input a sentence and find the part of speech for each word in that sentence. Please try it out and leave feedback. We're always happy to hear from you (unless it's something negative...just kidding)! LINK --> Grab it here! Thanks!
  9. Would you like to learn German? Grammar explanations and practice tests at A1-A2-B1-B2 level - Exam German Start German A1-A2-B1-B2 exams are offered at our Haus on a regular basis. These internationally recognized exams Zertifikat Deutsch is the right exam for students who already have a good basic knowledge of German. Deutsch B1 will test your good basic knowledge of German. ● Get it on Google Play ● ➤ The application contains a huge number of questions in German grammar and vocabulary that are selected randomly to improve your German. ➤ This app will be constantly updated with new contents, and tests which help you continually refreshing your knowledge. ➤ Grammar Quiz for Beginners app is an app for German amateur learners. ➤ Each question has an answer right after you selected your best solution. Score will be calculated in real-time. ● Test your grammatical knowledge with the Test! ● This test contains grammar and vocabulary questions and your test result. ● This app allows users to practice by level A1-A2-B1-B2 and includes exercises. Download now German Grammar Test Apps from Google Play: ► Grammatik Übungen A1 Prüfung ►Grammatik Übungen A2 Prüfung ► Grammatik Übungen B1 Prüfung ►Grammatik Übungen B2 Prüfung Enjoy your learning
  10. Hi! Good morning! I´m just double checking this grammar point. This doubt came up in a Skype English class with a Spanish student. Which is correct? 1. The worst thing IS Spaniards. 2. The worst thing ARE Spaniards. Since a singular subject takes a singular verb, whereas a plural subject takes a plural verb, I believe option 1 to be correct. However, as a native, and I am sure natives would not be sure, option 2 sounds OK too! For an exam I would definately go for option 1. Any opinions?? Many thanks. Mark
  11. This website was created to share pictures, videos, articles about different cultures, anecdotal facts, traveling... while also teaching new vocabulary and grammar. This way, you can practice your language skills while also learning about something new. http://anvilstreet.net
  12. Hello all, New to the forum here, hope you don't think my question is stupid so I'll try to explain. In England we don't actually learn English grammar, so I've always felt it's more difficult to learn foreign languages. Especially in my own experience of learning German where the grammar system is so much more complex. Four cases and 16 situation dependent versions of the word 'the'... I want to know: Are German speakers actually aware whether a sentence is accusative, nominative, genitive or dative as they say it? Do they know instinctively if something is the subject, object, indirect object etc, and form their sentences instantly according to the case? OR, is it mostly learned whilst growing up, through repetition and context? I basically, would love to find a new way to learn that involves minimal grinding of the grammar terminology... much of which is somewhat alien to me because English grammar was never taught. If anyone could share any resources or tips to learn by context or examples you will have my sincere gratitude! And if anyone can empathise and understand where I'm coming from that would be nice as well. I want to take the next step with my German education but I feel stuck and confused about how best to push on. Thanks all! Tom
  13. We all know that language uses finite means to get infinite number of sentences. We can create sentences almost freely. Sometimes they don't make sense, true, but they still remain a possibility. However, language in general also has the property of recursion. By its definition "recursion" is the repetition of something. In language, things can be repeated almost infinitely. Take for example the following sentence: I am very tired. If I feel extremely tired, I might (instead of using the adverb phrase extremely) put another very in front of very tired as a premodification: I am very very tired. Grammatically, this is allowed even one hundred times. So sentence I am very very very very very very very very very tired. is perfectly grammatical, although it is not used simply because its not economical or practical. This is the example of recursion: the repetition of the adverb / adverb phrase very. One other way in which recursion is realised is via coordination. Consider the following: Mary was in school. If we wanted to name all the children who were in school, that would be allowed, so we might get a very very very long sentence (I just love recursion), for example: Mary and John and Jane and Joseph and George and Steve and Tina and Josh were in school. Coordination allows me to name as many children as I want. Same is with adjectives: I am tired and sleepy and frustrated... And finally, there is one more structure I can think of: embedding! Also known as : subordinate clauses. He says that I know that Mary thinks that John believes that .... So, this is recursion. I used the examples from English simply because we all understand it. However, recursion is present in other languages as well. The only reason why it doesn't function is the memory limitation. We forget what we'd wanted to say or we forget what we'd already named - things like that. Still, these sentences remain grammatical. We cannot call them ill-formed, merely impractical.
  14. Theta Roles in English

    Words have meaning and function. According to their semantic function in the sentence, they also get a grammatical / syntactic function as well. There is one theory which bases everything on the verbs. The verb determines the complements and whether the sentence will have two objects, an object and a complement, just one object or nothing. The verb also carries certain semantic properties, which not only determine the number of complements, but also their type, i.e. form (whether to have a noun phrase or something else). Take for example put. Verb put in English asks for a direct object and location - put something somewhere, usually in the form of noun phrase (for direct object) and prepositional phrase (for location). So, a grammatical sentence with put can be: I put the book on the table. But certainly not *I put the book the table. Although we have a direct object and potential location, it is not in the correct form, thus it cannot get the right thematic role. When it comes to English, there are many thematic roles. It all depends on whether you're studying them from the point of view from generative or descriptive grammar. I prefer generative grammar and this is how it's usually described there: Agent: the doer of an action, capable of volition; by virtue of his own volition achieves something; Instrument: a tool with which an action is performed; used by an agent to achieve something; lacking independent volition; Affected Object (Patient): the element undergoing the action or state; Affected Object (Theme): the element undergoing a change of state involving location or movement; Location: the place an action or state occurs; Source: the starting point of a movement; Goal: the end point of a movement; Experiencer: the entity which is aware of the action or state described by the predicate but which is not in control of the action or state; Beneficiary: the entity for whose benefit the action is performed; Recipient: a special kind of goal found with verbs of possession, e.g. give; Proposition: The thematic role assigned to clauses; Thus, in the previous sentence we have three arguments for the verb put: one subject and two complements. I put the book on the table. The subject "I" carries the theta role of Agent, because "I" is a subject capable of volition and is doing something. The book gets the theta role of Theme, because it undergoes a change of state which involves either location or movement. On the table is the Location. Similar analysis can be applied to many other sentences. For example: Mary cracked the nut with the hammer. Mary is Agent (doing something), the nut gets the thematic (theta) role of Patient (no location or movement change) and with the hammer is Instrument. The doctor examined the patient. The doctor gets the thematic (theta) role of Agent (doing something) and the patient gets the thematic (theta) role of Patient (no change in location) The postman brought the letter. The postman gets the thematic (theta) role of Agent and the letter is the theme (change of location). There are also sentences where Agent is not the subject. For example. The letter arrived. The letter is theme. That's because the verb "arrive" is ergative and its subject begins as its complement. The train is in the station. The train gets the theta role of Theme and in the station that of Location. The man felt ..... The man becomes Experiencer because of the verb "feel" which is not an action.
  15. Are you learning a language? On our website you can find useful information on languages, on destinations (language learning should be fun!), on exams like the CAE, CPE, CFE, TOEFL etc. and on grammar and vocabulary study. Our blog is in German, there is also an Italian, English, French, Spanisch, Polish and Portuguese section. Interested? Then go to: http://coursefinders.com/de/studentlibrary We are happy to see you there!
  16. Chinese books for children?

    Can anyone recommend me some children's books that are in Chinese? I can't read much above the level of about second grade but I enjoy testing my limits with the books all the same. If you can provide any links or pds files I'd greatly appreciate it. 谢谢!
  17. I have been learning Spanish at school and university for 10 years and after having spent the last year living and working in Buenos Aires, I finally reached the pinnacle of my Spanish language learning. I was fluent, or so I thought! A month after I returned to England I found myself losing the fluency, obviously you may think, but you underestimate the confidence that comes when you get fluent! I was trying to assess this situation and how I could go about fixing it. I couldn't fly back out to Argentina or Spain for that matter, far too expensive and I have to finish my degree. I talk occasionally with my Argentinian friends and I watch and read about everything that interests me, in Spanish. This has massively helped me and kept me engaged with the language and I am slowly getting back up to the level I was at when I left Argentina. What are your methods of maintaining a high level in a foreign language? What makes you tick when learning?? I am intrigued to know! Personally I cannot stand grammar exercises! Immerse yourself in language - immerse-app.com
  18. Qui va avoir cinq ans

    The sentence I have written is: La prochaine fois que nous irons en ville, surement le weekend prochain, je vais m’acheter du maquillage et un cadeau d’anniversaire pour mon frère qui va avoir cinq ans. To say 'for my brother who is going to be 5 years old' does 'pour mon frère qui va avoir cinq ans' make sense? I was unsure about how to structure this and whether I have used the write verbs etc.
  19. Colours in Latin

    Colours in Latin Well, now that I've done a section on adjectives, I wish to add colours as well. As in any other language, colours in Latin can be very useful and good for practice. Colours are adjectives, so they act like them - they follow the pattern of bonus, bona, bonum explained in the previous post. Here is a list of Latin colours: flavus, flava, flavum - blue albus, alba, album - white aureus, aurea, aureum - golden purpureus, purpurea, purpureum - purple caeruleus, caerulea, caeruleum - sky-blue roseus, rosea, roseum - rose There are some which follow the pattern of miser, misera, miserum: niger, nigra, nigrum - black ater, atra, atrum - dark ruber, rubra, rubrum Enjoy playing with colours!
  20. Latin and Roman Literature

    Latin and Roman Literature Well, as the title says, I wish to say something about the importance of the Roman literature. Many experts have claimed that it's not really a literature, merely a copy of the Greek original, but it's more than that. Yes, Romans kept most of the Greek forms, but they also added some of their own ideas and changed many of the forms. Then, there's the difference in values. Greeks loved philosophy, Romans loved law. Their works show these two affinities. When it comes to Roman poetry, it's very important, and it's significance isn't only with Virgil, Horace and Ovid, though these three were the greatest Roman poets. There were also other notable poets such as Catullus and Martial who were excellent at what they were doing. Drama is also very vital. I won't even talk about the value of Plautus and many others - the list would be too long. Reading poetry and drama, though, is a little tricky as you must be familiar with the metrics system. They're still beautiful in translation, though. Roman prose is very varied. It goes from historic books and philosophy to orations on various topics. Cicero is excellent at prose. So is Caesar (though I dislike him) and Augustus. And they're not that difficult to read for beginners, though of course, it's better to get acquainted with them through translations for the time being. What I wished to point out with this is that there are so many excellent works written in Latin. Some of them are elegies, some romantic poems, some orations held at court. Latin texts are very diverse. The theme varies so much that there will always be something you like. You just have to be patient enough to look.
  21. Specificity in Gender

    Specificity in Gender There are some rules which can help you determine the gender of the noun and it will be useful knowing them. Nouns which are masculine in gender are: names of men (Lucius), nations, rivers (Tiberis, Sequana), winds (aquilo), months (Aprilis) Feminine in gender are: names of women (Cornelia), lands (Aegyptus, Gallia), islands (Delus), cities (Ephesus, Athenae), trees (malus - apple) Additional notes: Whereas the trees are feminine, the fruits are neutral in gender. So if you're referring to an apple tree, you'd say malus, and it would be feminine, but if you're referring to just an apple, it would be malum and neutral in gender. Whereas most cities are feminine in gender, some are not such as Praeneste (neutral). Same is with some lands. There are also rivers which are feminine in gender: Allia, Matrona (river Marne), Lethe, Styx I hope this list is helpful. Sometimes it can help you determine the gender. It's very good to know the difference in between the gender of trees and their fruits, for example, as there are no exceptions there. It also doesn't hurt if you know the general gender the islands, rivers and cities follow, as most of the Latin texts mention them.
  22. Latin Declensions

    Latin Declensions I have enclosed a chart of Latin declensions in this topic. There are five of them - five types of declensions in Latin. The first one is called the ae-declension and it consists of mostly femininum nouns (there's a small number of masculinum nouns as well in this declension, but they all act like femininum nouns, so there's no change). The second one mostly consists of masculinum nouns (endings -us, -er), but also has a large number of neutrum nouns (ending -um). The third one is mixed. More about this later. The fourth one is mostly masculinum as well (-us), but also has a small number of femininum nouns which follow the same pattern as masculinum,so there's no change in the endings. The fifth one consists of femininum nouns. There are only a few of them, though. Only a small number of them have the full declension, most are partial. There are three genders in Latin - masculinum, femininum and neutrum, i.e. masculine, feminine and neutral gender. Where possible they follow the natural genders, but it doesn't have to be. What is most important is to know which noun belongs to which declension as that determines its usage. So, when you're learning new vocabulary, always learn all three columns or else you will always have a lot of questions: aqua, ae, f - water bellum, i, n - war Aqua is the nominative case, aquae is genitive. If you wish to get the base form of this noun, you subtract the genitive suffix ae and get the stem aqu-. That's the stem onto which you add suffix endings. So, to conclude: Stem + Suffix = Noun Stem in Latin usually can't stand alone. Just to introduce the terminology: Stem is the root or main part of a word, to which inflections or formative elements are added. This will help you a lot, especially as some cases of various declensions look the same, so if you know to which declension a noun belongs, there will be no confusion about this.
  23. Latin Cases

    Latin Cases One of the major differences in between Latin and English are the declension cases. English has none when it comes to nouns. There are actually four cases (according to some grammars, even three) in English but they're only noticeable in the possessive form of the pronouns (he - him). The cases in English are very simplified and sometimes aren't even expressed through suffix (genitive). Example: I am here - subject; nominative case. One of us is missing. - genitive case expressed with ''of'' - phrase: genitive mostly means possession and belonging I am approaching him. - dative case: goal, indirect object I caught a fish. - accusative: direct object The cases in Latin are as follows, in this order: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, and Ablative. In Latin, these rules for cases remain the same: nominative is used for subject, genitive usually means possession and belonging, dative is either a goal or the case of indirect object whereas accusative is reserved for direct object only. However, Latin also has two more cases: vocative (which is in most cases equivalent in form to nominative), which is used for emphasis (in English, it would be, John, hand me the bag; Mary, stop that, Helen, go away) and ablative. Ablative case is very tricky. It has a lot of meanings. It most commonly means place, though. It can also be used to express a temporal relative clause (similar meaning to after/while/during/when), and a variety of other meanings, most of which are connected to English adverbials (of time, manner, means...). I guess you could call it the case of adverbials.