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I want to introduce an iOS app which is very useful for learning Japanese, especially Japanese's accent and pronunciation. The app' data is referenced from famous Japanese's websites so that it is completely reliable. Below are the app description and download link, please take a look at this.
JAccent is an offline Japanese accent dictionary for Japanese teachers and learners.
You can search for the Tokyo dialect accent, and you can also search for kanji's meaning.
Also, you can easily find opposite words, Japanese counter suffix, Japanese surname and so on.
Absolutely, you can use it daily for checking the meaning of the word.
・Over 45,500 accents
・Over 5000 opposite words
・Over 12,000 kanji's meaning, Onyomi, Kunyomi, writing etc.
・Adjectives and verbs' forms
・Japanese counter suffix, Japanese surname, Japanese place name, overseas place name
・Kanji's handwriting recognition
・Internet is not necessary (Except audio listening)
※ Coming soon features:
・Words and Accents' contribution
※ App's data referenced the following page:
※ Download link on AppStore:
As you may have read in my profile, I love to help people to learn and/or improve their Spanish. This is my mother tongue and I teach it for a living...!
I have designed and uploaded a Spanish Pronunciation Workshop to Thinkific (a Canadian organization for on-line courses). No bells, no whistles, just good, solid content on what Spanish pronunciation is all about. Excellent for beginners or advanced students.
Click on the link and check it out and, por supuesto, let me know what you think: http://gospanishgo.thinkific.com
SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER: The first 50 students to sign up will receive a free one-hour on-line Skype or Zoom session with Cesar T. You will be able to, actually, practice what you have learned or ask questions to a real instructor...! You decide whether you take it before of after you complete the workshop. Just send me a message to schedule a day/time.
Syllables and Accent in Latin
It seemed to me that I would overwhelm you if I added this in my previous topic with pronunciation, so I decided to give this a special attention, just a little bit about syllables and accents in Latin.
Latin vowels can be both long and short. Latin diphthongs are always long. This helps determine the length of the syllables.
Latin syllables can be long:
- by nature/naturally if they contain a long vowel or diphthong, e.g. flos (flower) vita (life), Caesar, aurum (gold) - most good dictionaries actually tell you whether the syllable is long or short by nature
- by position if they contain a short vowel which is followed by two or more consonants, e.g. arbor, dux (x is actually ks, so that counts as two).
It may seem that the length of a syllable is not really important, but it actually is. It can change the meaning of the word, take for example liber - with short i, liber means book and it's a noun; with long i, it means free and is an adjective. Another example could be malum - with short a, it means evil, with long apple.
Accent in Latin
The first and foremost rule: Latin words are accentuated from the end, not the beginning.
The accent can be on the last syllable, the penultimate syllable and the third from the back (which are, actually, in Latin the first, the second and the third). The similar system is in Ancient Greek as well - the syllables are counted from the end of the word to the beginning, and they too can be only on the last three (from our perspective, from their perspective, it's actually the first three).
If a word has only two syllables, the accent is on the penultimate one (that is on the ''second'' as would be more proper to say), e.g. vita, pater, mater, terra
If a word has three or more syllables, the accent is on the third from the back (or simply, ''third'', if you adopt the Latin way of counting them) if the syllable is short, e.g. Cicero (-ce- is short), populus (both po- and -pu- are short here) and on the penultimate (or the ''second'', really) if the syllable is long, e.g. natura (-tu- is long here).
I know that this sounds very abstract and technical, but we have to start from somewhere, don't we? These are the very basic things and they are actually very important. You can't read Latin without them (not properly, at least). But, if it makes it any easier, I didn't like this part of the grammar either.
Latin Alphabet, Spelling and Pronunciation
The Romans had taken the letters from the Greeks (via the Etruscans). In the beginning, there were only capital letters. In Cicero's time, there were only 21 letters of the alphabet (it ended with X). Y and Z were added later because of the borrowed Greek words such as Byzantium.
Capitalisation in Latin:
- proper names, their adjectives and adverbs: Latium (the area), Latinus (of Latium, belonging to), Latine (adv.)
-first word in a sentence and usually first word in a verse (though in many Latin texts, this isn't observed)
Alphabet and Pronunciation
For the sake of easier understanding and different phonetic chart, I am going to give examples in English, where possible, and bold the letter pronounced. Only bear in mind that Latin consonants are more frontal than English ones - meaning that English alveolar t and d sound more dental in Latin and so on.
A a car
B b brother
C c key (classical pronunciation) and German Zeit (traditional pronunciation - though only when c is found in combination with e (cena) and i (Cicero), otherwise, it's like in key)
D d dark
E e let
F f foreign
G g Greek
H h head (again, more frontal than the English guttural h)
I i feed
K k key
L l light (Latin also has the so called dark and clear l)
M m mother
N n nephew
O o lot
P p pay
Q q key (in combination qu- quote)
R r rot (without the English alveolar sound - Latin r is more like Italian)
S s soft (classical pronunciation), both soft and zealous (traditional pronunciation)
T t toy
U u soot
V v what (classical pronunciation), vigorous (traditional pronunciation)
X x fix
Y y lit
Z z zealous
Latin also has a very developed system of diphthongi, which are as follows:
ae fight (classical pronunciation), let (traditional pronunciation - only longer)
oe loiter (classical pronunication) red (traditional pronunciation - only longer)
eu let and soot together (sorry, I can't think of an example in English as it doesn't allow this combination, like many other languages)
ui Louis (French pronunciation)
Another remark: Combinations -ch-, -ph-, -th- were pronounced differently in these two standards. The classical pronunciation would be kh, ph, th, whereas the traditional would be h, f, t
e.g. pulcher is pulkher (or trad. pulher), schola is skhola (or trad. shola), theatrum is theatrum (trad. teatrum)
I know that at this point, it must sound obscure, but I wrote this hoping that eve nthose who don't know how to read Latin words can start somewhere. Those of you who speak Slavic languages will find this very easy as Slavic pronunciation of vowels and consonants is very similar to that in Latin. For the rest, try to think about either Russian or German consonants and Spanish vowels.
It's best to choose one pronunciation. Traditional is used seldom. Still, I wished to tell you that there were more ways of reading Latin. Most countries have adopted the classical pronunciation, so that is what I would advise you to do.
Here are some Latin words for you to practice pronunciation with using the ''chart'' above (I have used only nouns):
mater, pater, frater, terra (land), stella (star), populus (people), liber (book), labor (work), acus (needle), bellum (war), ars (art), domus (home), Roma, Athenae