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  1. Specificity in Gender There are some rules which can help you determine the gender of the noun and it will be useful knowing them. Nouns which are masculine in gender are: names of men (Lucius), nations, rivers (Tiberis, Sequana), winds (aquilo), months (Aprilis) Feminine in gender are: names of women (Cornelia), lands (Aegyptus, Gallia), islands (Delus), cities (Ephesus, Athenae), trees (malus - apple) Additional notes: Whereas the trees are feminine, the fruits are neutral in gender. So if you're referring to an apple tree, you'd say malus, and it would be feminine, but if you're referring to just an apple, it would be malum and neutral in gender. Whereas most cities are feminine in gender, some are not such as Praeneste (neutral). Same is with some lands. There are also rivers which are feminine in gender: Allia, Matrona (river Marne), Lethe, Styx I hope this list is helpful. Sometimes it can help you determine the gender. It's very good to know the difference in between the gender of trees and their fruits, for example, as there are no exceptions there. It also doesn't hurt if you know the general gender the islands, rivers and cities follow, as most of the Latin texts mention them.
  2. Latin Declensions I have enclosed a chart of Latin declensions in this topic. There are five of them - five types of declensions in Latin. The first one is called the ae-declension and it consists of mostly femininum nouns (there's a small number of masculinum nouns as well in this declension, but they all act like femininum nouns, so there's no change). The second one mostly consists of masculinum nouns (endings -us, -er), but also has a large number of neutrum nouns (ending -um). The third one is mixed. More about this later. The fourth one is mostly masculinum as well (-us), but also has a small number of femininum nouns which follow the same pattern as masculinum,so there's no change in the endings. The fifth one consists of femininum nouns. There are only a few of them, though. Only a small number of them have the full declension, most are partial. There are three genders in Latin - masculinum, femininum and neutrum, i.e. masculine, feminine and neutral gender. Where possible they follow the natural genders, but it doesn't have to be. What is most important is to know which noun belongs to which declension as that determines its usage. So, when you're learning new vocabulary, always learn all three columns or else you will always have a lot of questions: aqua, ae, f - water bellum, i, n - war Aqua is the nominative case, aquae is genitive. If you wish to get the base form of this noun, you subtract the genitive suffix ae and get the stem aqu-. That's the stem onto which you add suffix endings. So, to conclude: Stem + Suffix = Noun Stem in Latin usually can't stand alone. Just to introduce the terminology: Stem is the root or main part of a word, to which inflections or formative elements are added. This will help you a lot, especially as some cases of various declensions look the same, so if you know to which declension a noun belongs, there will be no confusion about this.
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