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Conjunctions in Japanese


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Hi everyone. Today I would like to talk about conjunctions in Japanese language. By saying 'conjunction' I mean such words as から[kara]、ので[node]、けれども[keredomo]、ところで[tokorode]、とこらが[tokoroga]. In fact there are much more different conjunctions in the language, although I think the ones I mentioned about are extremely useful and can be used in everyday talk.

1) から[kara] - 'because of', 'the reason is' (this conjunction describes subjective opinion (reason)):


[hoshi ga deteirukara, asita mo kitto ii tenki daroo]

Tomorrow probably will be good weather as well, because of the stars on the sky.


[kyoo wa tsuma no tanjoobi desukara, hayaku kaeranakerebanaranai]

Today my wife`s birthday, that`s why I need to come back home early.


[asita wa isogasii desukara, dokomo ikimasen]

Tomorrow I`ll be busy, that`s why I won`t go.

As you can see から can be used with a verb in infinitive (Vる/ます+から) or a noun + だ/です and adjective (しい/な) + から. Yes, it`s that simple!

2) ので[node] - the same meaning as から 'because of', 'the reason is' (but unlike から, ので describes objective reason).


[basu ga sugu konakatta node kaisha ni okuremasita]

I was late for a work, because the bus didn`t arrive on time.


[ie wa yasui node kaimasu]

This house is cheap, that`s why I will buy it.

Note, these sentences are formed only by adding ので to a verb in a form of る/った (you are not supposed to use ので with verbs of ます), a noun in a form of だ/だった and adjective しい/な.

3)けれども/けれど/けど/けども [keredomo/keredo/kedo/kedomo] - 'but'


[ni jikan mattekeredo, kare wa sugata wo awasanakatta]

I had waited for him for 2 hours, but he didn`t show up.


[kyoo wa nichiyoobi da keredomo, gakkoo e ikanakerebanaranai]

Although today is Sunday, I still have to go to school.

4) ところで[tokorode] - 'by the way'

Note, generally used at the beginning of a sentence:


[yatto natsuyasumi desu ne. tokoro de, konnen no natsuyasumi wa doosimasuka]

Finaly, it is a summer vacation. By the way, what are you going to do this summer?


["tokorode o sigoto wa?" "densikoogakukankei nandesu yo, jitsu wa"]

"What do you do, by the way?" "I`m in electronics, actually."

5) とこらが[tokoroga] - 'but', 'although' (this one is generally used at the beginning of the second sentence, contrarying the meaning of a previous sentence).


[tenki yohoo wa kyoo wa ame ni naru to itteita. tokoro ga sukosi musi atsukattadakedo, kekkyoku wa furanakatta]

It was said in the weather forecast that today would rain. Although it was just stuffy a little bit and it didn`t rain eventually.

Ok, hope you`ll find this material useful. As usual you can leave a comment and ask a question if you have one. グッドラック!.

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