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3rd and 4th Conjugation


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Two best examples would be lego, legere, legi, lectum - read and punio, punire, punivi, punitum - punish

lego, legere, legi, lectum - read

                    Singular          Plural

1st person          lego          legimus

2nd person          legis          legitis

3rd person          legit            legunt

punio, punire, punivi, punitum - punish

                    Singular          Plural

1st person        punio          punimus

2nd person      punis          punitis

3rd person        punit           puniunt

The reason why I put these two together is because of the 3rd person plural, where both verbs have -unt ending. It is very important to notice this. Usually, the inflectional suffixes follow the core vowel from the verb, however, here it changes, and so we have the following situation.

In third conjugation, short i is present throughout the conjugation, except for the third person plural where it changes into short u.

In fourth conjugation, long i is present throughout the conjugation, except for 3rd person singular where it's short and in 3rd person plural it's joined with a short u.

Common verbs:

3rd declension:

peto, petere, petivi, petitum  -  seek

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - ask

cupio, cupire, cupivi, cupitum - want, yearn

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretum - despise

sero, serere, sevi, satum - shine

consulo, consulere, consului, consultum - ask for advice

gemo, gemere, gemui, -        - sigh

dico, dicere, dixi, dictum - say

duco, ducere, duxi, ductum - lead

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - govern

veho, vehere, vexi, vectum - drive (they had carriages)

mitto, mittere, misi, missum - send

ago, agere, egi, actum - work

emo, emere, emi, emptum - buy

4th declension:

sepelio, sepelire, sepelivi, sepultum - bury (the word sepulchre has this root)

sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum - feel, think

vincio, vincire, vinxi, victum - bind

venio, venire, veni, ventum - come

convenio, convenire, conveni, conventum - gather

invenio, invenire, inveni, inventum - invent, find

As you can see, there are a lot of verbs in the third declension. I picked only the most frequent ones.

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