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Dear Colleagues, We inform all of you that some articles have been published at REGISTER Journal, Language & Language Teaching Journals, a Journal of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, with Print ISSN: 1979-8903 and Online ISSN: 2503-040X . It is the International Journal that has been indexed by DOAJ, IPI/Portal Garuda, ISJD, Moraref, Google Scholar, One Search Indonesia, etc. Please visit the online version of REGISTER Journal via Google search engine by using keywords “REGISTER Journal IAIN Salatiga” or click this website link URL: http://journalregister.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/register/index/ These are the articles published at REGISTER Journal, Language & Language Teaching Journals for Volume 9, No.2 , December 2016: Vol 9, No 2 (2016) REGISTER JOURNAL Table of Contents of Articles LET THE GAME BEGIN: ERGODIC AS AN APPROACH FOR VIDEO GAME TRANSLATION Sf. Lukfianka Sanjaya Purnama, Sf. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo, Dyah Nugrahani PDF IMPROVING STUDENTS’ LISTENING SKILL THROUGH SHADOWING Mukminatus Zuhriyah PDF CREATING AN ENGLISH COMPUTER GAME AS AN INTERACTIVE MATERIAL IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNER (TEYL) Aprilian Ria Adisti PDF DEVELOPING TEACHERS’ GUIDE TO USE FACEBOOK GROUP IN A BLENDED WRITING COURSE (A Research and Development in IAIN Surakarta) Roko Patria Jati PDF THE USE OF PUPPET: SHIFTING SPEAKING SKILL FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF STUDENTS’ SELF-ESTEEM Suesthi Maharani PDF RESOURCE BASED LEARNING FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENTS Muhammad Nazil Iqdami PDF THE USE OF TEACHING BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE THROUGH ANDROID APPLICATION, VIDEO, AND POWERPOINT PRESENTATION TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS Surya Agung Wijaya Furthermore, we also invite you and your colleagues to publish research-based and non-research articles REGISTER Journal, Language & Language Teaching Journals, a Journal of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, with Print ISSN: 1979-8903 and Online ISSN: 2503-040X for : Volume 10, No.1, June 2017 The Deadline will be 1st March 2016. For more info contact: Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari: [email protected] (Editor).
We all know that language uses finite means to get infinite number of sentences. We can create sentences almost freely. Sometimes they don't make sense, true, but they still remain a possibility. However, language in general also has the property of recursion. By its definition "recursion" is the repetition of something. In language, things can be repeated almost infinitely. Take for example the following sentence: I am very tired. If I feel extremely tired, I might (instead of using the adverb phrase extremely) put another very in front of very tired as a premodification: I am very very tired. Grammatically, this is allowed even one hundred times. So sentence I am very very very very very very very very very tired. is perfectly grammatical, although it is not used simply because its not economical or practical. This is the example of recursion: the repetition of the adverb / adverb phrase very. One other way in which recursion is realised is via coordination. Consider the following: Mary was in school. If we wanted to name all the children who were in school, that would be allowed, so we might get a very very very long sentence (I just love recursion), for example: Mary and John and Jane and Joseph and George and Steve and Tina and Josh were in school. Coordination allows me to name as many children as I want. Same is with adjectives: I am tired and sleepy and frustrated... And finally, there is one more structure I can think of: embedding! Also known as : subordinate clauses. He says that I know that Mary thinks that John believes that .... So, this is recursion. I used the examples from English simply because we all understand it. However, recursion is present in other languages as well. The only reason why it doesn't function is the memory limitation. We forget what we'd wanted to say or we forget what we'd already named - things like that. Still, these sentences remain grammatical. We cannot call them ill-formed, merely impractical.
Words have meaning and function. According to their semantic function in the sentence, they also get a grammatical / syntactic function as well. There is one theory which bases everything on the verbs. The verb determines the complements and whether the sentence will have two objects, an object and a complement, just one object or nothing. The verb also carries certain semantic properties, which not only determine the number of complements, but also their type, i.e. form (whether to have a noun phrase or something else). Take for example put. Verb put in English asks for a direct object and location - put something somewhere, usually in the form of noun phrase (for direct object) and prepositional phrase (for location). So, a grammatical sentence with put can be: I put the book on the table. But certainly not *I put the book the table. Although we have a direct object and potential location, it is not in the correct form, thus it cannot get the right thematic role. When it comes to English, there are many thematic roles. It all depends on whether you're studying them from the point of view from generative or descriptive grammar. I prefer generative grammar and this is how it's usually described there: Agent: the doer of an action, capable of volition; by virtue of his own volition achieves something; Instrument: a tool with which an action is performed; used by an agent to achieve something; lacking independent volition; Affected Object (Patient): the element undergoing the action or state; Affected Object (Theme): the element undergoing a change of state involving location or movement; Location: the place an action or state occurs; Source: the starting point of a movement; Goal: the end point of a movement; Experiencer: the entity which is aware of the action or state described by the predicate but which is not in control of the action or state; Beneficiary: the entity for whose benefit the action is performed; Recipient: a special kind of goal found with verbs of possession, e.g. give; Proposition: The thematic role assigned to clauses; Thus, in the previous sentence we have three arguments for the verb put: one subject and two complements. I put the book on the table. The subject "I" carries the theta role of Agent, because "I" is a subject capable of volition and is doing something. The book gets the theta role of Theme, because it undergoes a change of state which involves either location or movement. On the table is the Location. Similar analysis can be applied to many other sentences. For example: Mary cracked the nut with the hammer. Mary is Agent (doing something), the nut gets the thematic (theta) role of Patient (no location or movement change) and with the hammer is Instrument. The doctor examined the patient. The doctor gets the thematic (theta) role of Agent (doing something) and the patient gets the thematic (theta) role of Patient (no change in location) The postman brought the letter. The postman gets the thematic (theta) role of Agent and the letter is the theme (change of location). There are also sentences where Agent is not the subject. For example. The letter arrived. The letter is theme. That's because the verb "arrive" is ergative and its subject begins as its complement. The train is in the station. The train gets the theta role of Theme and in the station that of Location. The man felt ..... The man becomes Experiencer because of the verb "feel" which is not an action.
Hi everybody, I teach English in a high school. In our country, students start learning English from 2nd grade until graduation from university. Namely, my current students have been learning English for ten years. That means approximately 1260 hours of learning English. I think you can guess what I am going to say. Yes, they still have problems in a considerable number of subjects. To relate the post with the topic, I should say that one of their major and most frequent problems is to build a grammatical sentence. They have problems when we sometimes make slighest changes in sentences. They misuse subject, sometimes predicate, adverbial phrase etc. There are some reasons that are beyond our control such as the syntactic differences between NL and TL. Shortly, my aim of creating this topic is to get some ideas on how to teach my students more effectively to build a grammatical sentence. Does anyone have any different ideas? How to teach students to learn the order of parts of speech? Is there any level obstacle for teaching the parts of speech? What parts should be introduced to which grade? What is the standard order of parts of speech? (all parts together). Thanks for reading the post:)